How did the bracero program affect agricultural wages?

The end of the Bracero program led to a sharp jump in farm wages, as exemplified by the 40 percent wage increase won by the United Farm Workers union in 1966 in its first table grape contract, raising the minimum wage under the contract from $1.25 to $1.75 an hour at a time when the federal minimum wage was $1.25.

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How did the Bracero Program benefit the workers?

In theory, the Bracero Program had safeguards to protect both Mexican and domestic workers for example, guaranteed payment of at least the prevailing area wage received by native workers; employment for three-fourths of the contract period; adequate, sanitary, and free housing; decent meals at reasonable prices; …

How did the Bracero Program affect the economy?

The Legacy of the Bracero Program

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Many U.S. farm owners created labor associations that increased labor market efficiency, reduced labor costs, and increased the average wages of all farm workersimmigrant and American alike.

Who benefited from the bracero program?

Throughout its existence, the Bracero Program benefited both farmers and laborers but also gave rise to numerous labor disputes, abuses of workers and other problems that have long characterized the history of farm labor in the Southwestern United States.

How did the Bracero program affect Mexican families?

Bracero remittances created positive income shocks for households in those communities that sent them to the United States. Moreover, braceros were exposed to ideas and institutions in the United States, including greater educational opportunities for children than in their own communities in Mexico.

What were the wages in the Bracero Program?

The bracero program guaranteed workers a minimum wage of 50 cents per hour, insurance and safe, free housing. However, farm owners frequently failed to live up to these requirements. Housing and food routinely was well below standards, and wages were not only low, but also frequently paid late or not at all.

What was one effect of the Bracero program quizlet?

Allowed Mexican laborers to work in the United States under short-term contracts in exchange for stricter border security and the return of illegal Mexican immigrants to Mexico.

How did the bracero program affect California?

The availability of Braceros permitted labor-intensive agriculture to expand to meet a growing demand for fruits and vegetables, creating a demand-pull for Mexican workers in California.

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How did Mexican immigrants affect agriculture in California?

The availability of immigrant workers permitted agriculture to continue to offer seasonal jobs that paid about half average manufacturing wages, so farm workers and their children were attracted to non-farm jobs that offered higher wages, better working conditions, and year-round work.

How did the Bracero program impact ww2?

The Bracero program had two unforeseen legacies. First, it established migration patterns from Mexico to the U.S. that remain in effect today. Secondly, it fostered the terrible worker conditions that led to the dramatic attempts of Cesar Chavez and others to unionize the fields in portions of the Nation’s Sunbelt.

Why did the Bracero program make it difficult to organize farm workers into a union?

The presence of Braceros made organizing farmworkers difficult because the growers had a ready source of labor if the farmworkers went on strike. After the end of the Bracero program in 1964, union organizers were more successful.

What types of injustices and abuses did Bracero laborers face?

Between 1942 and 1964, the year the program ended, it was estimated that approximately 4.6 million Mexican nationals came to work in the U.S. as braceros. Many laborers faced an array of injustices and abuses, including substandard housing, discrimination, and unfulfilled contracts or being cheated out of wages.

What was the Bracero program and why did it come about?

The role of the Bracero Program

The program was originally conceived in the early 1940s, during World War II, to combat a wartime dearth of agricultural labourers due to military service and a shift by agricultural workers to better-paying manufacturing jobs.

Why was the Bracero program bad?

Farm labor wages stagnated at low levels for decades; braceros became the favored workers of growers, particularly in the West, to the detriment of U.S. workers. American workers, both black and white, were subtly pushed out of farm work. The braceros were routinely underpaid and badly treated.

Which of the following occurred as a result of the Bracero Program in 1942 quizlet?

Which of the following occurred as a result of the bracero program in 1942? Due to labor shortages in American farm counties, Mexico agreed to send seasonal farmworkers to the United States on yearlong contracts.

Which of the following was a feature of the Bracero Program?

Which of the following was a feature of the bracero program? Mexican farm workers were admitted to the United States on short-term work contracts.

What attracted Mexican immigrants to the Bracero Program Why did many continue to participate in this program despite the difficult conditions?

Mexicans were attracted to the program for 2 main reasons, money and a better life. These individuals were provided transportation, housing, food, and travel back to Mexico.

Why did the Bracero Program was eliminated by the United Government?

The program came to an end in 1964 in part because of concerns about abuses of the program and the treatment of the Bracero workers. Although the program was supposed to guarantee a minimum wage, housing, and health care, many workers faced low wages, horrible living and working conditions, and discrimination.

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Why would the Bracero program attract Mexican workers?

braceros would learn new agricultural skills which would benefit the development of Mexico’s own agricultural programs. possibility that the braceros would earn good wages in the U.S., bring the money back to Mexico and stimulate the Mexican economy. American workers often worked as families.

Is the Bracero Program still active?

After scandals and political pressure, and President John F. Kennedy campaigning against it, the program was terminated in 1964. Sadly, America has not learned its lesson. The United States is repeating an historical mistake, once again admitting large numbers of guestworkers in low-wage occupations.

What was the impact of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

The treaty effectively halved the size of Mexico and doubled the territory of the United States. This territorial exchange had long-term effects on both nations. The war and treaty extended the United States to the Pacific Ocean, and provided a bounty of ports, minerals, and natural resources for a growing country.

What were some challenges faced by farm workers when trying to form unions?

Migrant workers lacked educational opportunities for their children, lived in poverty and terrible housing conditions, and faced discrimination and violence when they sought fair treatment. Attempts to organize workers into unions were violently suppressed.

Why did agribusiness lobby for the Bracero program?

The fact that the state-sponsored contract labor Agreement lasted well beyond 1945 indicates that more than a wartime labor shortage prompted the lobbying effort. Yearly extensions after 1945 finalizing in Public Law 78 in 1951 guaranteed the Program’s operation till 1964.

What was the outcome of the Bracero Program?

The Bracero Program concluded on December 31, 1964 as mechanization became more widespread. Ultimately, the program resulted in an influx of undocumented and documented laborers, 22 years of cheap labor from Mexico, and remittances to Mexico by Braceros.

Who was against the Bracero Program?

Anti-immigrant groups in the U.S. sometimes point to the Bracero program as leading to a wave of mass undocumented immigration. The migrant labor movement, including Cesar Chavez of the United Farm Workers, opposed the program because of its exploitation of workers.

Why was the Bracero program which brought Mexican workers to the United States necessary from 1942 1945?

This program was intended to fill the labor shortage in agriculture because of the war. In Texas, the program was banned for several years during the mid-1940s due to the discrimination and maltreatment of Mexicans including the various lynchings along the border.

What did Executive Order 9066 do quizlet?

Terms in this set (12)

Roosevelt’s Executive Order 9066, dated February 19, 1942, gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen from a fifty- to sixty-mile-wide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California and extending inland into southern Arizona.

Why was the Bracero program important quizlet?

Significance: Initiated because of farm labor shortages caused by American entry into World War II, the bracero program brought Mexican workers to replace American workers dislocated by the war.

How did the bracero program affect the economy?

The Legacy of the Bracero Program

Many U.S. farm owners created labor associations that increased labor market efficiency, reduced labor costs, and increased the average wages of all farm workersimmigrant and American alike.

What were 3 results of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?

By its terms, Mexico ceded 55 percent of its territory, including parts of present-day Arizona, California, New Mexico, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Utah, to the United States. Mexico relinquished all claims to Texas, and recognized the Rio Grande as the southern boundary with the United States.

What was the effect of the United States shifting to an industrial wartime economy?

What was the effect of the United States’ shifting to an industrial wartime economy? One year after the United States entered the war, its military industrial production exceeded that of all three major Axis Powers combined.

What was the result of the invasion of Manchuria by Japanese troops in the 1930s quizlet?

What was the result of the invasion of Manchuria, China by Japanese troops in the 1930s? They took advantage of China’s weakness during a civil war by proclaiming Manchuria’s independence.

Why did the US pay Mexico 15 million dollars?

It stemmed from the annexation of the Republic of Texas by the U.S. in 1845 and from a dispute over whether Texas ended at the Nueces River (the Mexican claim) or the Rio Grande (the U.S. claim).

How was Mexico affected by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo quizlet?

What did the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo do? It ended the U.S.-Mexican War and transferred 500,000 square miles of land from Mexico to United States ownership.

How did the bracero program affect Mexican workers?

In theory, the Bracero Program had safeguards to protect both Mexican and domestic workers for example, guaranteed payment of at least the prevailing area wage received by native workers; employment for three-fourths of the contract period; adequate, sanitary, and free housing; decent meals at reasonable prices; …

How did the bracero program impact California?

The availability of Braceros permitted labor-intensive agriculture to expand to meet a growing demand for fruits and vegetables, creating a demand-pull for Mexican workers in California.

What was the Bracero program quizlet?

Allowed Mexican laborers to work in the United States under short-term contracts in exchange for stricter border security and the return of illegal Mexican immigrants to Mexico.